What used to be a decline in the HIV incidence among people who inject drugs has stalled in the face of rapid HIV transmission events occurring during an escalating drug overdose epidemic. The TITAN model is able to simulate transmission through both sexual and injecting behaviors, allowing us to research the spread of HIV through communities of people who inject drugs, who may have overlapping risk behaviors. We use the TITAN model to investigate implementation of harm reduction programs, such as syringe service programs.

  Banning the operation of syringe services programs has massive implications for the health and well-being of communities of people who use drugs.  


Goedel WC, King MRF, Lurie MN, Galea S, Townsend JP, Galvani AP, Friedman SR, Marshall BDL. Implementation of syringe services programs to prevent rapid human immunodeficiency virus transmission in rural counties in the United States: A modeling study. Clin Infect Dis. 2020; 70(6): 1096-1102.